Predatory publishers and standalone journals

This work began in 2017 with Beall’s list of ‘predatory’ publishers. Those that no longer existed or were no longer publishers of journals were deleted, and the names of new publishers found to be in breach of one or more of eight ‘fatal’ criteria were included. Details of these criteria appear on the home page and are summarised at the head of the lists. 120 of the still existing publishers listed by Beall were not in breach of any of the eight criteria. As a result, there are now many more new publishers than those of concern still extant from Beall’s list. Hence this is not a ‘new Beall’s list.’ This is the Scholarly Outlaws list that states the currency of all entries and justifies those entries with reference to criteria of egregiously unethical conduct where these are found to occur. One violation signifies that a publisher might be predatory. Two violations signifies that a publisher probably is predatory. Three or more violations signifies that a publisher is predatory and should not be supported by academics, either by publishing articles in its journals or by serving on its editorial boards.

The easiest and best way to examine any of these lists is to download it (bottom left button). In particular, scrolling will then operate perfectly.

Acknowledgement: several of the titles of publishers and standalone journals in the lists below were first listed in updates provided by the anonymous curator of




Updated list of publishers




Similar work was carried out for Beall’s 2017 list of standalone journals. In this case not only were there hundreds of titles that no longer existed, there were also hundreds that had a stated publisher. A definition of a standalone journal was therefore adopted thus: a journal with a dedicated website, published not by a company or institution but by an individual, or without a visibly indicated publisher. The list is below.




Updated list of standalone journals





Those interested in seeing what has gone and what remains from Beall’s 2017 lists of publishers and standalone journals, see below



Beall’s original (2017) list of publishers



Beall’s original (2017) list of standalone journals