This work began in 2017 with Beall’s list of ‘predatory’ publishers. Those that no longer existed or were no longer publishers of journals were deleted, and the names of new publishers found to be in breach of one or more of eight ‘fatal’ criteria were included. Details of these criteria appear on the home page and are summarised at the head of the lists. 120 of the still existing publishers listed by Beall were not in breach of any of the eight criteria. As a result, there are now many more new publishers than those of concern still extant from Beall’s list. Hence this is not a ‘new Beall’s list.’ Only Beall could give us a new Beall’s list, and we can be sure that that won’t happen. This is the Scholarly Outlaws list that states the currency of all entries and justifies those entries with reference to criteria of egregiously unethical conduct where these are found to occur. One violation signifies that a publisher might be predatory. Two violations signifies that a publisher probably is predatory. Three or more violations signifies that a publisher is predatory and should not be supported by academics, either by publishing articles in its journals or by serving on its editorial boards. It is intended to keep all entries current to within three years, so those dated 2020 are being updated to 2024 at present.

The easiest and best way to examine any of these lists is to download it (bottom left button). In particular, scrolling will then operate perfectly.

Acknowledgement: some of the titles of publishers and standalone journals in the lists below were first listed in updates provided by the anonymous curator of


Please leave a comment if you know of any suspect publisher or journal whose name is not listed.



List of possible, probable and confirmed predatory publishers




Those interested in seeing what has gone and what remains from Beall’s 2017 lists of publishers and standalone journals, see below. They may be slightly imperfect and are currently being checked and confirmed.



Beall’s original (2017) list of publishers



Beall’s original (2017) list of standalone journals