The criteria are

  1. Conceals or misrepresents the marketer’s true identity or location.
  2. Makes demonstrably false claims.
  3. Guarantees or implies publication.
  4. Lists fake or stock speakers or committee members.
  5. Lists real academics without telling them.
  6. Conceals in whole or part the cost of registration or other fees.
  7. Lists the same speakers at different conferences on the same days.


Marketers are possibly fraudulent (1 ), probably fraudulent (2) or certainly fraudulent (3 or more violations of these criteria).